The first three decades of the ESRD program were devoted to extending patient survival. Few data have been generated regarding the factors associated with successful patient adjustment. Depression and perception of the effects of illness are important responses to the experience of ESRD and may be associated with differential survival. Perception and extent of social support can moderate these factors. The association of psychosocial factors and assessments of quality of life are incompletely understood and are topics of research interest. The role of variation in socioeconomic status in association with these factors has not been extensively studied. The challenges for the next 30 years include understanding the relationship of psychosocial factors to demographic and medical factors in large ESRD patient populations and the refinement of associations between psychosocial factors and patient outcomes, including adjustment, compliance, morbidity, and mortality.