The effect of lipid environment and retinoids on the ATPase activity of ABCR, the photoreceptor ABC transporter responsible for Stargardt macular dystrophy

J Biol Chem. 2000 Jul 7;275(27):20399-405. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M000555200.


ABCR is a photoreceptor-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter that has been linked to various retinal diseases, including Stargardt macular dystrophy, and implicated in retinal transport across rod outer segment (ROS) membranes. We have examined the ATPase and GTPase activity of detergent-solubilized and reconstituted ABCR. 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid-solubilized ABCR had ATPase and GTPase activity (K(m) approximately 75 micrometer V(max) approximately 200 nmol/min/mg) that was stimulated 1.5-2-fold by all-trans-retinal and dependent on phospholipid and dithiothreitol. The K(m) for ATP decreased to approximately 25 micrometer after reconstitution, whereas the V(max) was strongly dependent on the lipid used for reconstitution. ABCR reconstituted in ROS phospholipid had a V(max) for basal and retinal activated ATPase activity that was 4-6 times higher than for ABCR in soybean or brain phospholipid. This enhanced activity was mainly due to the high phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content of ROS membranes. PE was also required for retinoid-stimulated ATPase activity. ATPase activity of ABCR was stimulated by the addition of N-retinylidene-PE but not the reduced derivative, retinyl-PE. ABCR expressed in COS-1 cells also exhibited retinal-stimulated ATPase activity similar to that of the native protein. These results support the view that ABCR is an active retinoid transporter, the nucleotidase activity of which is strongly influenced by its lipid environment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism*
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • COS Cells
  • Cattle
  • Cholic Acids / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Lipids / pharmacology*
  • Phospholipids / pharmacology
  • Proteolipids / metabolism
  • Retinaldehyde / pharmacology
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa / enzymology
  • Retinoids / pharmacology*
  • Rod Cell Outer Segment / enzymology*
  • Transfection
  • Vitamin A / pharmacology


  • ABCA4 protein, human
  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
  • Cholic Acids
  • Lipids
  • Phospholipids
  • Proteolipids
  • Retinoids
  • proteoliposomes
  • Vitamin A
  • chapso
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases
  • Retinaldehyde