The aim of the present case-control study was to verify the incidence and the state of health of the neonates born of extracommunity parents (E.C.) in the our hospital throughout the years 1993-1998. For every neonate born of E.C. we have analyzed two italian neonates born immediately before and after. The parameters analyzed were: nationality, age, and job of the parents, abortions, number of ecography carried out during pregnancy, parity, delivery, gestational age (G.A.), weight at birth, Apgar score, malformations, perinatal mortality and neonatal morbidity. Statistical analyses were performed with the T Student test and the chi-square test. Throughout the 1993-1998 years are born 9285 neonates. Of these 199 (2.4%) were E.C. The 45% of the E.C. derived from the Far East and only the 10% were nomad. The 86% of the E.C. had a job. In the E.C. group the multiparity was significantly higher than in italian group. G.A., birth weight, number of malformation, neonatal morbidity, and perinatal mortality were the same in the E.C. and in the italian neonates. Our data, in disagreement with other Authors, demonstrate that in our hospital the state of health of the E.C. and italian neonates is not different. Because in the our analysis it results that the greater number of E.C. parents had a job, it is likely that the non-observed increased of perinatal mortality and morbidity in the neonates born of E.C. depends on the social integration of E.C.