Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the infectious agent giving rise to human tuberculosis. The entire genome of M. tuberculosis, comprising approximately 4000 open reading frames, has been sequenced. The huge amount of information released from this project has facilitated proteome analysis of M. tuberculosis. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) was applied to fractions derived from M. tuberculosis culture filtrate, cell wall, and cytosol, resulting in the resolution of 376, 413, and 395 spots, respectively, in silver-stained gels. By microsequencing and immunodetection, 38 culture filtrate proteins were identified and mapped, of which 12 were identified for the first time. In the same manner, 23 cell wall proteins and 19 cytosol proteins were identified and mapped, with 9 and 10, respectively, being novel proteins. One of the novel proteins was not predicted in the genome project, and for four of the identified proteins alternative start codons were suggested. Fourteen of the culture filtrate proteins were proposed to possess signal sequences. Seven of these proteins were microsequenced and the N-terminal sequences obtained confirmed the prediction. The data presented here are an important complement to the genetic information, and the established 2-D PAGE maps (also available at: www.ssi.dk/publichealth/tbimmun) provide a basis for comparative studies of protein expression.