alpha-Adrenoceptors (alpha1AR) are G protein-coupled receptors and include alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D subtypes corresponding to cloned alpha1a, alpha1b, and alpha1d, respectively. alpha1AR mediate several cardiovascular actions of sympathomimetic amines such as vasoconstriction and cardiac inotropy, hypertrophy, metabolism, and remodeling. alpha1AR subtypes are products of separate genes and differ in structure, G protein-coupling, tissue distribution, signaling, regulation, and functions. Both alpha(1A)AR and alpha(1B)AR mediate positive inotropic responses. On the other hand, cardiac hypertrophy is primarily mediated by alpha(1A)AR. The only demonstrated major function of alpha(1D)AR is vasoconstriction. alpha1AR are coupled to phospholipase C, phospholipase D, and phospholipase A2; they increase intracellular Ca2+ and myofibrillar sensitivity to Ca2+ and cause translocation of specific phosphokinase C isoforms to the particulate fraction. Cardiac hypertrophic responses to alpha1AR agonists might involve activation of phosphokinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase via Gq x alpha1AR subtypes might interact with each other and with other receptors and signaling mechanisms.