We aim to estimate HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among street youth in Montreal, Canada. We conducted a one-year cross-sectional anonymous study in 1995. We recruited youth aged 13-25 years meeting specific criteria for itinerancy through the 20 major Montreal street youth agencies. Participation included a structured interview and provision of an oral specimen for HIV testing. Among the 909 subjects studied, 99.3% had been sexually active, 25.9% had exchanged sex for money, gifts, drugs, a place to sleep, or other things; 31.8% reported anal sex; and 36.4% reported having ever injected drugs. Overall, HIV prevalence was 1.9% (1.1% in girls and 2.2% in boys). Multivariate logistic regression showed that being over 20 years of age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 7.09), having injected drugs (AOR 4.48), having engaged in prostitution (AOR 3.32), and being born outside Canada (AOR 4.41) were all independently associated with HIV infection.