The cytosolic factor p47-phox, encoded by the NCF1 gene, is an essential component of the phagocyte NADPH-oxidase system. Upon activation of this multicomponent system, p47-phox translocates to the membrane and participates in the electron transfer from NADPH to molecular oxygen. A deficiency or absence of p47-phox is the most common autosomal form of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We have cloned and characterized the NCF1 gene from four bacteriophage clones, a P1 clone and genomic DNA from normal individuals. The gene is 15,236 base pairs long and includes 11 exons. It is 98.6% homologous in sequence to at least one pseudogene that maps to the same region of chromosome 7q11.23. Slightly more than half (50.37%) of the wild-type NCF1 gene consists of repetitive elements. In particular, the density of Alu sequences is high (1.4 Alu/kb); there are 21 Alu repeats interspersed through 10 introns. These findings are consistent with the observation that recombination events between the wild-type gene and its highly homologous pseudogenes account for the majority of potentially lethal mutations in p47-phox-deficient chronic granulomatous disease. Analysis of 1.96 kb of sequence 5' of the start of translation revealed a high homology (99.6%) between wild-type and pseudogene clones. Characterization of NCF1 establishes a foundation for detailed molecular analysis of p47-phox-deficient CGD patients as well as for the study of the regulation of the NCF1 gene and pseudogenes, both of which are present as full-length transcripts in normal individuals.
Copyright 2 Academic Press.