Regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism by PPAR activators

Clin Chem Lab Med. 2000 Jan;38(1):3-11. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2000.002.


The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARalpha, the first identified PPAR family member, is principally expressed in tissues exhibiting high rates of beta-oxidation such as liver, kidney, heart and muscle. PPARgamma, on the other hand, is expressed at high levels in adipose tissue. PPARs are activated by dietary fatty acids and eicosanoids, as well as by pharmacological drugs, such as fibrates for PPARalpha and glitazones for PPARgamma. PPARalpha mediates the hypolipidemic action of fibrates in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. PPARalpha is considered a major regulator of intra- and extracellular lipid metabolism. Upon fibrate activation, PPARalpha down-regulates hepatic apolipoprotein C-III and increases lipoprotein lipase gene expression, key players in triglyceride metabolism. In addition, PPARalpha activation increases plasma HDL cholesterol via the induction of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II expression in humans. Glitazones exert a hypotriglyceridemic action via PPARgamma-mediated induction of lipoprotein lipase expression in adipose tissue. PPARs play also a role in intracellular lipid metabolism by up-regulating the expression of enzymes involved in conversion of fatty acids in acyl-coenzyme A esters, fatty acid entry into mitochondria and peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid catabolism. These observations have provided the molecular basis leading to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of fibrates and glitazones on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and identify PPARs as attractive targets for the rational design of more potent lipid-lowering drugs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Lipoproteins / metabolism*
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology*
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*
  • Triglycerides / metabolism


  • Lipoproteins
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Transcription Factors
  • Triglycerides