Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disease caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme 27-sterol hydroxylase (CYP 27), due to mutations in its gene. In this study we report on mutations in 58 patients with CTX out of 32 unrelated families. Eight of these were novel mutations, two of which were found together with two already known pathogenic mutations. Twelve mutations found in this patient group have been described in the literature. In the patients from 31 families, mutations were found in both alleles. In the literature, 28 mutations in 67 patients with CTX out of 44 families have been described. Pooling our patient group and the patients from the literature together, 37 different mutations in 125 patients out of 74 families were obtained. Identical mutations have been found in families from different ethnic backgrounds. In 41% of all the patients, CYP 27 gene mutations are found in the region of exons 6-8. This region encodes for adrenodoxin and haem binding sites of the protein. Of these 125 patients, a genotype-phenotype analysis was done for 79 homozygous patients harbouring 23 different mutations, out of 45 families. The patients with compound heterozygous mutations were left out of the genotype-phenotype analysis. The genotype-phenotype analysis did not reveal any correlation.