Multiple Phospholipase D (PLD) genes have been identified in plants and encode isoforms with distinct regulatory and catalytic properties. Elucidation of the genetic and biochemical heterogeneity has provided important clues as to the regulation and function of this family of enzymes. Polyphosphoinositides, Ca(2+), and G-proteins are possible cellular regulators for PLD activation. PLD-mediated hydrolysis of membrane lipids increases in response to various stresses. Recent studies suggest that PLD plays a role in the signaling and production of hormones involved in plant stress responses.