The amount and type of burn injuries in The Netherlands are described using Surveillance Systems on treatments at an Accident and Emergency (A&E) department, hospital admissions and fatal injuries and a national survey (to asses treatments by a general practitioner). These data show an estimated 420 persons/year/100,000 inhabitants that are medically treated for burn injuries due to home and leisure accidents in The Netherlands. Fifty percent of all burn injuries concern scalds. But almost all the fatal injuries are caused by fire and flames. From this analysis, three risk groups were identified. Children aged 0-4 and elderly above 84 years have the highest risk of getting admitted to the hospital because of burn injuries. Among the children admitted to hospital, 75% suffer scalds. For injuries treated at an A&E department, people aged 15-24 years appear to have a higher incidence than average. Through a series of surveys among these risk groups, we were able to describe main accident scenarios of burn injuries and their causes. Among young children, 80% of all scald injuries are caused by pushing down or dropping a hot liquid. Parents most frequently reported lack of the supervision (e.g. attention distracted by others) to be one of the causes of the injury. Among the age group 15-29 years and the elderly, most injuries occur during cooking. Clumsiness and inattention are major causes of injuries among young adults. Among the elderly, a quarter of all victims reported health problems or handicaps to be a cause of their injury. Based on the results of our analysis, preventive measures were suggested.