In order to address the mechanism of enhancement of the affinity of an antibody toward an antigen from a thermodynamic viewpoint, anti-hen lysozyme (HEL) antibody HyHEL-10, which also recognize the mutated antigen turkey lysozyme (TEL) with reduced affinity, was examined. Grafting high affinity toward TEL onto HyHEL-10 was performed by saturation mutagenesis into four residues (Tyr(53), Ser(54), Ser(56), and Tyr(58)) in complementarity-determining region 2 of the heavy chain (CDR-H2) followed by selection with affinity for TEL. Several clones enriched have a Phe residue at site 58. Thermodynamic analyses showed that the clones selected had experienced a greater than 3-fold affinity increase toward TEL in comparison with wild-type Fv, originating from an increase in negative enthalpy change. Substitution of HyHEL-10 HTyr(58) with Phe led to the increase in negative enthalpy change and to almost identical affinity for TEL in comparison with mutants selected, indicating that mutations at other sites decrease the entropy loss despite little contribution to the affinity for TEL. These results suggest that the affinity of an antibody toward the antigen is enhanced by the increase in enthalpy change by some limited mutation, and excess entropy loss due to the mutation is decreased by other energetically neutral mutations.