Hyperuricemia is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. However, this relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a controversial one, especially among males. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between SUA concentrations and other CVD risk factors among adult males in Taiwan. After multi-stage sampling procedures, we randomly selected 1743 Taiwanese males with a mean age of 35 years (from 22 to 54) in this study. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical variables, including serum uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, were measured. Among the study population, the mean SUA concentration was 6.5 +/-1.5 mg/dl. There were 290 (16.6%) subjects with SUA concentrations > or = 8.0 mg/dl (defined as hyperuricemia). Compared to normouricemic subjects, hyperuricemic subjects had significantly greater age-adjusted body weight (75.3 vs. 69.2 kg, p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI, 25.5 vs. 23.6 kg/m2, p < 0.001), higher blood pressure (BP, 120.2 vs. 115.2 mmHg for systolic BP and 78.5 vs. 75.3 mmHg for diastolic BP, both p < 0.001) and blood lipid concentrations (193.8 vs. 182.1 mg/dl for total cholesterol and 123.7 vs. 94.4 mg/dl for triglycerides, both p < 0.001). SUA concentration was positively correlated with body weight, BMI, BP and serum lipid concentrations (all p < 0.001). In multivariate regression analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders, SUA concentration was significantly positively associated with diastolic BP, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. An increase of 1 mg/dl of SUA was associated with a 2.1 mg/dl elevation in serum total cholesterol (p < 0.001) and a 5.4 mg/dl increase in triglyceride (p < 0.001). From this study, we found that hyperuricemia in subjects is associated with being overweight, and having high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. There is a significantly positive association between SUA concentration and other CVD risk factors among adult males in Taiwan.