Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN), is an autosomal dominant renal disease characterized by juvenile onset of hyperuricemia, gouty arthritis, and progressive renal failure at an early age. Using a genomewide linkage analysis in three Czech affected families, we have identified, on chromosome 16p11.2, a locus for FJHN and have found evidence for genetic heterogeneity and reduced penetrance of the disease. The maximum two-point LOD score calculated with allowance for heterogeneity (HLOD) was 4.70, obtained at recombination fraction 0, with marker D16S3036; multipoint linkage analysis yielded a maximum HLOD score of 4.76 at the same location. Haplotype analysis defined a 10-cM candidate region between flanking markers D16S501 and D16S3113, exhibiting crossover events with the disease locus. The candidate interval contains several genes expressed in the kidney, two of which-uromodulin and NADP-regulated thyroid-hormone-binding protein-represent promising candidates for further analysis.