Differential regulation of glutaredoxin gene expression in response to stress conditions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jan 31;1490(1-2):33-42. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4781(99)00234-1.


Glutaredoxins are small heat-stable proteins that are active as glutathione-dependent oxidoreductases and are encoded by two genes, designated GRX1 and GRX2, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that the expression of both genes is induced in response to various stress conditions including oxidative, osmotic, and heat stress and in response to stationary phase growth and growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, both genes are activated by the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and negatively regulated by the Ras-protein kinase A pathway via stress-responsive STRE elements. GRX1 contains a single STRE element and is induced to significantly higher levels compared to GRX2 following heat and osmotic shock. GRX2 contains two STRE elements, and is rapidly induced in response to reactive oxygen species and upon entry into stationary phase growth. Thus, these data support the idea that the two glutaredoxin isoforms in yeast play distinct roles during normal cellular growth and in response to stress conditions.

MeSH terms

  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Glutaredoxins
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Oxidoreductases*
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / growth & development
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Glutaredoxins
  • MSN2 protein, S cerevisiae
  • MSN4 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Oxidoreductases