Subproteomics based upon protein cellular location and relative solubilities in conjunction with composite two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

Electrophoresis. 2000 Apr;21(6):1094-103. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2683(20000401)21:6<1094::AID-ELPS1094>3.0.CO;2-0.


Progress in the field of proteomics is dependent upon an ability to visualise close to an entire protein complement via a given array technology. These efforts have previously centred upon two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in association with immobilised pH gradients in the first dimension. However, limitations in this technology, including the inability to separate hydrophobic, basic, and low copy number proteins have hindered the analysis of complete proteomes. The challenge is now to overcome these limitations through access to new technology and improvements in existing methodologies. Proteomics can no longer be equated with a single two-dimensional electrophoresis gel. Greater information can be obtained using targeted biological approaches based upon sample prefractionation into specific cellular compartments to determine protein location, while novel immobilised pH gradients spanning single pH units can be used to display poorly abundant proteins due to their increased resolving power and loading capacity. In this study, we show the effectiveness of a combined use of two differential subproteomes (as defined by relative solubilities, cellular location and narrow-range immobilised pH gradients) to increase the resolution of proteins contained on two-dimensional gels. We also present new results confirming that this method is capable of displaying up to a further 45% of a given microbial proteome. Subproteomics, utilising up to 40 two-dimensional gels per sample will become a powerful tool for near-to-total proteome analysis in the postgenome era. Furthermore, this new approach can direct biological focus towards molecules of specific interest within complex cells and thus simplify efforts in discovery-based proteome research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cells / metabolism
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods*
  • Gels
  • Proteome / analysis*
  • Solubility


  • Gels
  • Proteome