A neuropathological report of Madras type of motor neuron disease (MMND) is presented and the differences from other forms of MND are discussed. An 18-year-old girl presented with nerve deafness and slowly progressive bulbo-spinal muscular atrophy, characteristic of MMND. Post-mortem examination of the spinal cord showed a severe loss of anterior horn cells, prominent dilatation of vessels, diffuse, but sparse sprinkling of microglial cells and lymphocytes, and demyelination and sclerosis of the ventrolateral columns. Neuronal depletion and marked gliosis was noted in the cochlear nucleus on both sides, while other bulbar motor nuclei were also involved. The cochlear nerve showed demyelination and axonal loss. Trigeminal and vestibular ganglia revealed features of ganglionitis. The possibility of an inflammatory aetiology for MMND needs to be considered.