The HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), which mediates selective HDL cholesterol uptake, plays a role in murine HDL metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. SR-BI is found in the liver, where its expression is regulated by estrogen, dietary cholesterol and fat, and controls murine plasma HDL cholesterol levels and bile cholesterol secretion. SR-BI is also highly expressed in rodent steroidogenic cells, where it facilitates cholesterol uptake for storage or steroid hormone synthesis and where its expression is regulated by trophic hormones. The detailed mechanism(s) underlying SR-BI-mediated selective cholesterol uptake have not yet been elucidated. Further analysis of the molecular and cellular bases of SR-BI regulation and function should provide new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of cholesterol metabolism.