Normative data and factor structure of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in the French version

Psychiatry Res. 2000 Apr 24;94(1):67-76. doi: 10.1016/s0165-1781(00)00127-x.


We explored the psychometric features of the French Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a 602-subject community sample (263 men and 339 women), representative of the French population. The factor structures of the temperament and character dimensions, explored separately, were in agreement with the hypothesized constructs, except for the scales Novelty Seeking NS1 (exploratory excitability), Persistence, and Self-Directedness SD4 (self-acceptance). The internal consistency of the main dimensions was good (Cronbach alpha coefficients between 0.68 and 0.82), but weak for Persistence (0.49). The mean scores of the temperament dimensions were notably different from those published in other normative data - especially lower for Novelty Seeking (16.4+/-5.6) and higher for Harm Avoidance (16.1+/-7.2) when compared with US data - suggesting cross-cultural differences in personality assessment, and the necessity to use specific normative values with each translated instrument.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Character*
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Culture
  • Exploratory Behavior / physiology
  • Female
  • France
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Personality Inventory*
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Sweden
  • Temperament / physiology*
  • United States