In the frog retina most bipolar cells, sparsely distributed amacrine cells and some ganglion cells contain calretinin (CaR). Double-label immunocytochemistry shows that in the Xenopus retina many calretinin positive amacrine cells are also gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (IR), none colocalizes glycine or dopamine but some contain serotonin (SER). The CaR-IR cells represent 8-9% of all GABA-IR amacrine cells. Only 4.6% of the CaR-positive cells contain SER. The SER-positive cells are present in two sizes in the anuran retina: the large cells never contain CaR but some of the small cells do. To further characterize the CaR+/SER+ amacrine cell population, immunolabeling for tryptophan hydroxylase (TrOH), the rate-limiting enzyme for SER synthesis, was performed. The results showed that large TrOH-containing cells are always negative for CaR. However, the small SER-synthesizing amacrine cells are invariably CaR-positive. Thus the anuran retina contains three neurochemically distinct SER-positive amacrine cell types, one of which (the small SER-synthesizing cell type) is also CaR-IR.