TUP1, CPH1 and EFG1 make independent contributions to filamentation in candida albicans

Genetics. 2000 May;155(1):57-67.


The common fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, can grow either as single cells or as filaments (hyphae), depending on environmental conditions. Several transcriptional regulators have been identified as having key roles in controlling filamentous growth, including the products of the TUP1, CPH1, and EFG1 genes. We show, through a set of single, double, and triple mutants, that these genes act in an additive fashion to control filamentous growth, suggesting that each gene represents a separate pathway of control. We also show that environmentally induced filamentous growth can occur even in the absence of all three of these genes, providing evidence for a fourth regulatory pathway. Expression of a collection of structural genes associated with filamentous growth, including HYR1, ECE1, HWP1, ALS1, and CHS2, was monitored in strains lacking each combination of TUP1, EFG1, and CPH1. Different patterns of expression were observed among these target genes, supporting the hypothesis that these three regulatory proteins engage in a network of individual connections to downstream genes and arguing against a model whereby the target genes are regulated through a central filamentous growth pathway. The results suggest the existence of several distinct types of filamentous forms of C. albicans, each dependent on a particular set of environmental conditions and each expressing a unique set of surface proteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Candida albicans / genetics
  • Candida albicans / metabolism
  • Candida albicans / physiology*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism*
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology
  • Genes, Fungal
  • Nuclear Proteins*
  • Repressor Proteins*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*


  • CPH1 protein, Candida albicans
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • EFG1 protein, Candida albicans
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • TUP1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Transcription Factors