Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy: antifouling and stabilisation of electrodes by a polymer coating

Bioelectrochemistry. 2000 Feb;51(1):13-20. doi: 10.1016/s0302-4598(00)00063-5.


Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS) has previously been shown to produce quantitative information that is indicative of the metabolic state of various organisms, by modeling the non-linear effects of their membranous enzymes on an applied oscillating electromagnetic field using supervised multivariate analysis methods. However, the instability of the characteristics of the measuring apparatus rendered the process temperamental at best in the laboratory and impractical for field use. The main practical problem, of the non-stationarity of the electrode-solution interface and the ease with which the electrode surfaces are subject to protein fouling. It is addressed by applying a thin, electrically transparent antifouling coat to the electrodes. This reduces the interminable cleaning procedures previously required to prepare the electrodes for use, increases their usable lifetime before recleaning, and also improves the precision and linearity of multivariate models on NLDS data.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Electricity
  • Electrodes*
  • Fermentation
  • Glucose
  • Polymers
  • Spectrum Analysis / methods*


  • Polymers
  • Glucose