The benefits of exercise training in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance, impaired glucose homeostasis, and NIDDM are strongly supported by current research. The actual mechanisms involved have not been completely identified but occur at the systemic, tissue, and cellular levels. The adaptations that are responsible for the prophylactic effects of exercise training, however, start to subside rapidly once training ceases and are completely lost within 1 to 2 weeks of detraining [4, 17, 37, 68, 161]. Thus, the benefits of exercise training must be renewed on a regular basis. In addition, many of the systemic and cellular adaptations that are responsible for an improved skeletal muscle insulin action occur in only those muscles involved in the training program [4, 28]. Therefore, exercise training programs that consist of various modes of exercise, and which require the use of a large muscle mass, such as swimming, power walking, and strength training, may be the most advantageous for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and associated diseases.