Cyclin A activates the DNA polymerase delta -dependent elongation machinery in vitro: A parvovirus DNA replication model

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 May 9;97(10):5522-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.090485297.


Replication of the single-stranded linear DNA genome of parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) starts with complementary strand synthesis from the 3'-terminal snap-back telomere, which serves as a primer for the formation of double-stranded replicative form (RF) DNA. This DNA elongation reaction, designated conversion, is exclusively dependent on cellular factors. In cell extracts, we found that complementary strand synthesis was inhibited by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) and rescued by the addition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, arguing for the involvement of DNA polymerase (Pol) delta in the conversion reaction. In vivo time course analyses using synchronized MVM-infected A9 cells allowed initial detection of MVM RF DNA at the G(1)/S phase transition, coinciding with the onset of cyclin A expression and cyclin A-associated kinase activity. Under in vitro conditions, formation of RF DNA was efficiently supported by A9 S cell extracts, but only marginally by G(1) cell extracts. Addition of recombinant cyclin A stimulated DNA conversion in G(1) cell extracts, and correlated with a concomitant increase in cyclin A-associated kinase activity. Conversely, a specific antibody neutralizing cyclin A-dependent kinase activity, abolished the capacity of S cell extracts for DNA conversion. We found no evidence for the involvement of cyclin E in the regulation of the conversion reaction. We conclude that cyclin A is necessary for activation of complementary strand synthesis, which we propose as a model reaction to study the cell cycle regulation of the Pol delta-dependent elongation machinery.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle / physiology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclin A / genetics
  • Cyclin A / metabolism*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins / metabolism
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • DNA Polymerase III / metabolism*
  • DNA Replication*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts
  • G1 Phase
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Kinetics
  • Mice
  • Minute Virus of Mice / enzymology
  • Minute Virus of Mice / genetics*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • S Phase
  • Spodoptera
  • Transfection
  • Virion / enzymology
  • Virion / genetics


  • Cdkn1a protein, mouse
  • Cyclin A
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • DNA Polymerase III