Eight cases of neonatal Haemophilus influenzae infection occurred at Colorado General Hospital during a 3 1/2-year period. Four of the cases were due to nontypable organisms and four to type b organisms. Four were bacteremic, only two of which were type b. None of the patients had meningitis. In all instances, maternal genital tract cultures yielded H infleuzae that, when tested, was of the same serotype as the infant isolate. A survey of cervical cultures among normal and pregnant women yielded H influenzae in less than 1%. There are several possible reasons for the disparity between the apparent high incidence of neonatal infection and low prevalence of maternal carriage.