Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism

J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000 Apr;78(4):708-24. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.78.4.708.


Using 3 experiments, the authors explored the role of perspective-taking in debiasing social thought. In the 1st 2 experiments, perspective-taking was contrasted with stereotype suppression as a possible strategy for achieving stereotype control. In Experiment 1, perspective-taking decreased stereotypic biases on both a conscious and a nonconscious task. In Experiment 2, perspective-taking led to both decreased stereotyping and increased overlap between representations of the self and representations of the elderly, suggesting activation and application of the self-concept in judgments of the elderly. In Experiment 3, perspective-taking reduced evidence of in-group bias in the minimal group paradigm by increasing evaluations of the out-group. The role of self-other overlap in producing prosocial outcomes and the separation of the conscious, explicit effects from the nonconscious, implicit effects of perspective-taking are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Group Processes*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prejudice*
  • Psychological Distance
  • Role Playing
  • Social Control, Informal*
  • Stereotyping*