Pediatric patients on dialysis should receive all the vaccines currently recommended by the ACIP and the AAP for healthy children, except the oral polio vaccine (34, 35). Adult patients should receive the hepatitis B vaccine series, pneumococcal vaccine, yearly influenza vaccinations, tetanus-diphtheria toxoids, and varicella vaccine, if they are susceptible (33, 48, 69). Vaccines are well tolerated by these patients (33), but higher doses and/or additional boosters may be required periodically to adequately protect dialysis patients from vaccine-preventable diseases (33, 36, 37, 82, 83). Following vaccination, antibody concentrations for hepatitis B vaccine should be measured annually and booster doses administered when antibody concentrations fall below protective levels (33, 38). Although both children and adults on dialysis may show an impaired and/or delayed immunologic response to certain antigens, particularly hepatitis B virus and S. pneumoniae, appropriate immunizations can significantly reduce the risk of serious complications from vaccine-preventable diseases (11, 84). Because the protection these vaccines provide may be incomplete or transient, infection control strategies at hospitals and other health care facilities should be implemented simultaneously. Health care providers are encouraged to assess each patients need for vaccinations individually and formulate immunization strategies early in the course of progressive renal disease, ideally before the patient requires dialysis.