Feeding schedules in hospitals for newborn infants

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000090. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000090.


Background: Regular breastfeeding times have been thought to help establish routines and promote infant digestion, while frequent breastfeeding has been recommended to enhance breastfeeding and infant growth.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of frequent breastfeeding compared with less frequent breastfeeding in the early days after birth.

Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register.

Selection criteria: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing on demand or frequent breastfeeding (two or three hourly) schedules in hospital compared with four hourly restricted feeds.

Data collection and analysis: Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted independently by two reviewers.

Main results: Three trials involving 400 women were included. There were significant methodological limitations in some of the studies. Compared to two hourly, three hourly or on demand breastfeeding, restricted (less frequent four hourly breastfeeding) was associated with greater discontinuation of breastfeeding by four to six weeks postpartum (relative risk 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.15). Restricted breastfeeding was associated with increased incidence of sore nipples (relative risk 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 3.68), engorgement (relative risk 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 3.21) and the need to give additional (formula) feeds (relative risk 3.14, 95% 1.24 to 8.00).

Reviewer's conclusions: There appear to be a number of disadvantages from restricting breastfeeding to a four hourly schedule in the first few days after birth. More frequent or on demand breastfeeding is associated with fewer complications and longer duration of breastfeeding.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Breast Feeding*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Maternal-Child Nursing
  • Nurseries, Hospital
  • Time Factors