Gaucher disease results from the inherited deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (EC 184.108.40.206). Although >100 mutations in the gene for human glucocerebrosidase have been described, most genotype-phenotype studies have focused upon screening for a few common mutations. In this study, we used several approaches-including direct sequencing, Southern blotting, long-template PCR, restriction digestions, and the amplification refraction mutation system (ARMS)-to genotype 128 patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (64 of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry and 64 of non-Jewish extraction) and 24 patients with type 3 Gaucher disease. More than 97% of the mutant alleles were identified. Fourteen novel mutations (A90T, N117D, T134I, Y135X, R170C, W184R, A190T, Y304X, A341T, D399Y, c.153-154insTACAGC, c.203-204insC, c.222-224delTAC, and c.1122-1123insTG) and many rare mutations were detected. Recombinant alleles were found in 19% of the patients. Although 93% of the mutant alleles in our Ashkenazi Jewish type 1 patients were N370S, c.84-85insG, IVS2+1G-->A or L444P, these four mutations accounted for only 49% of mutant alleles in the non-Jewish type 1 patients. Genotype-phenotype correlations were attempted. Homozygosity or heterozygosity for N370S resulted in type 1 Gaucher disease, whereas homozygosity for L444P was associated with type 3. Genotype L444P/recombinant allele resulted in type 2 Gaucher disease, and homozygosity for a recombinant allele was associated with perinatal lethal disease. The phenotypic consequences of other mutations, particularly R463C, were more inconsistent. Our results demonstrate a high rate of mutation detection, a large number of novel and rare mutations, and an accurate assessment of the prevalence of recombinant alleles. Although some genotype-phenotype correlations do exist, other genetic and environmental factors must also contribute to the phenotypes encountered, and we caution against relying solely upon genotype for prognostic or therapeutic judgements.