Identification of susceptibility loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a two stage genome scan of affected sib-pairs

Hum Genet. 2000 Mar;106(3):345-50. doi: 10.1007/s004390051048.


Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a complex disorder of multigenic origin involving between two and ten loci. Linkage and association studies of CL/P have implicated a number of candidate genes and regions but have often proved difficult to replicate. Here, we report the findings from a two-stage genome-wide scan of 92 affected sib-pairs to identify susceptibility loci to CL/P. An initial set of 400 microsatellite markers was used, with an average spacing of 10 cM throughout the genome. Eleven regions on eight chromosomes were found to have a P-value smaller than 0.05. These eight chromosomes were then further mapped with a second set of markers to increase the average map density to 5 cM. In seven out of eleven areas densely mapped, significance was markedly increased by decreasing the marker interval. Excessive allele sharing was found at 1p (NPL=2.35, P=0.009, MLS=1.51), 2p (NPL=1.77, P= 0.04, MLS=0.66), 6p (NPL=2.35, P=0.009, MLS=1.34), 8q (NPL=2.15, P=0.015, MLS= 1.51) 11 cen (NPL=2.70, P=0.003, MLS=2.10), 12q (NPL=2.08, P=0.02, MLS= 1.5), 16p (NPL=2.1, P=0.018, MLS=0.97) and Xcen-q (NPL=2.40, P=0.008, MLS=2.68). Although none reached the level required for significant susceptibility loci, two of these areas have previously been implicated in CL/P, viz. 2p13, an area harbouring the TGFA gene, and 6p23-24. We also demonstrate highly suggestive linkage to a susceptibility locus for nonsyndromic clefting on the X chromosome. Further studies are currently underway to replicate these findings in a larger cohort of affected sib-pairs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cleft Lip / genetics*
  • Cleft Palate / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics*
  • Genetic Testing*
  • Humans
  • Lod Score
  • Male
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Nuclear Family*
  • Transforming Growth Factor alpha / genetics
  • United Kingdom


  • Transforming Growth Factor alpha