We identified the Drosophila trio gene, which encodes a Dbl family protein carrying two Dbl homology (DH) domains, each of which potentially activates Rho family GTPases. Trio was distributed along axons in the central nervous system (CNS) of embryos and was strongly expressed in subsets of brain regions, including the mushroom body (MB). Loss-of-function trio mutations resulted in the misdirection or stall of axons in embryos and also caused malformation of the MB. The MB phenotypes were attributed to alteration in the intrinsic nature of neurites, as revealed by clonal analyses. Thus, Trio is essential in order for neurites to faithfully extend on the correct pathways. In addition, the localization of Trio in the adult brain suggests its postdevelopmental role in neurite terminals.