Metabolic network analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum using (13)C-labeled glucose

Biotechnol Bioeng. 2000 Jun 20;68(6):652-9.


Using (13)C-labeled glucose fed to a penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum, the intracellular fluxes were quantified, and the presence of two new pathways, not previously described in this organism, is suggested. Thus, glycine was synthesized not only by serine hydroxymethyltransferase, but also by threonine aldolase. The formation of cytosolic acetyl-CoA was found to be synthesized both via the citrate lyase-catalyzed reaction and by degradation of the penicillin side-chain precursor, phenoxyacetic acid. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate that the main activities of homocitrate synthase and alpha-isopropylmalate synthase are located in the cytosol. All experimental data on the labeling patterns were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is faster and more sensitive than the nuclear magnetic resonance methods usually applied for analysis of labeling patterns.

MeSH terms

  • Acetyl Coenzyme A / biosynthesis
  • Biotechnology
  • Carbon Isotopes
  • Cell Compartmentation
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glycine / biosynthesis
  • Models, Biological
  • Penicillium chrysogenum / metabolism*


  • Carbon Isotopes
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A
  • Glucose
  • Glycine