A patient suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (FAB M5a) received a PBSC allograft from a matched, related donor. On day 13 after transplantation severe hypophosphatemia (0.21 mmol/l) was first noted which persisted irrespective of intravenous phosphate administration, and within 2 days reached concentrations below 0.13 mmol/l. After repeated phosphate substitution serum phosphate returned to 1.40 mmol/l on day 17. Phosphate in urine, and calcium in serum were recorded as unchanged throughout. Clinical signs and symptoms due to severe hypophosphatemia were not observed except for paresthesia in the lower extremities. The precipitous fall in serum phosphate coincided with hematopoietic reconstitution as reflected by a steep rise in leukocyte count from 0.08 x 109/l on day 10 to 5. 94 x 109/l on day 15 after transplantation. Thus, isolated hypophosphatemia was likely the result of excessive cellular phosphate uptake during hematopoietic reconstitution. Electrolyte monitoring after PBSCT should include serum phosphate to identify the hypophosphatemia associated with hematopoietic recovery.