The incidence of indolent lymphomas in the lymph nodes and extranodal regions is quite different. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is most common in the nodes, and it seems to be least common in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arises most frequently. The authors report that the incidence of FL is unexpectedly high in the duodenum compared with other portions of the GI tract. FL was detected in only eight of 222 cases of GI lymphoma (3.6%). However, five cases of FL arose in the duodenum, which accounted for 38.5% of 13 duodenal lymphomas. Only in two patients did FL arise in either the stomach or the colorectum, and in the remaining patients FL was widespread with lymphomatous polyposis. Duodenal FL was composed of neoplastic follicles with small cleaved cells in dominance, and the immunophenotype of the lymphoma cells was CD10+, BCL-2+, CD20+, CD75+, CD79+, CD3-, CD5-, cyclin D1-, CD23-, and CD45RO-. All the patients were women age 37 to 66 years (average age, 52.4 yrs). In all patients the lymphoma was present around the ampulla of Vater, and four of five patients showed multiple small-size polyps. Although lymphoma cell infiltration was confined to the submucosa in the four patients examined, the regional lymph nodes were involved partially in two patients without distant metastasis. All patients are alive at 2 to 50 months of follow up (average, 27 mos), which is comparable with the prognosis for indolent nodal lymphomas. These results suggest that the duodenum has a distinct background of histogenesis of the lymphomas and that biopsy specimens from the duodenum with multiple polyps should be examined carefully.