The serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 is an essential component of the MAPK cascade. Activation of Raf-1 by extracellular signals is initiated by association with intracellular membranes. Recruitment of Raf-1 to membranes has been reported to be mediated by direct association with Ras and by the phospholipase D product phosphatidic acid (PA). Here we report that insulin stimulation of HIRcB fibroblasts leads to accumulation of Ras, Raf-1, phosphorylated MEK, phosphorylated MAPK, and PA on endosomal membranes. Mutations that disrupt Raf-PA interactions prevented recruitment of Raf-1 to membranes, whereas disruption of Ras-Raf interactions did not affect agonist-dependent translocation. Expression of a dominant-negative Ras mutant did not prevent insulin-dependent Raf-1 translocation, but inhibited phosphorylation of MAPK. Finally, the PA-binding region of Raf-1 was sufficient to target green fluorescent protein to membranes, and its overexpression blocked recruitment of Raf-1 to membranes and disrupted insulin-dependent MAPK phosphorylation. These results indicate that agonist-dependent Raf-1 translocation is primarily mediated by a direct interaction with PA and is independent of association with Ras.