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, 97 (12), 6769-74

Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish Populations Share a Common Pool of Y-chromosome Biallelic Haplotypes

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Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish Populations Share a Common Pool of Y-chromosome Biallelic Haplotypes

M F Hammer et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.

Abstract

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the paternal origins of the Jewish Diaspora. A set of 18 biallelic polymorphisms was genotyped in 1,371 males from 29 populations, including 7 Jewish (Ashkenazi, Roman, North African, Kurdish, Near Eastern, Yemenite, and Ethiopian) and 16 non-Jewish groups from similar geographic locations. The Jewish populations were characterized by a diverse set of 13 haplotypes that were also present in non-Jewish populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A series of analyses was performed to address whether modern Jewish Y-chromosome diversity derives mainly from a common Middle Eastern source population or from admixture with neighboring non-Jewish populations during and after the Diaspora. Despite their long-term residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level. Admixture estimates suggested low levels of European Y-chromosome gene flow into Ashkenazi and Roman Jewish communities. A multidimensional scaling plot placed six of the seven Jewish populations in a relatively tight cluster that was interspersed with Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations, including Palestinians and Syrians. Pairwise differentiation tests further indicated that these Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations were not statistically different. The results support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Time-scaled gene tree for 19 biallelic Y-chromosome haplotypes. Each mutational event at one of 18 biallelic sites on the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome is represented by a dot (single-nucleotide polymorphism) or a square (small insertion/deletion). Mutational ages (in 103 yr) are indicated on the y axis, and the haplotypes defined by these mutational events are shown on the x axis. 1 = SRY10831.1, 2 = PN3, 3 = RPS4Y711, 4 = YAP, 5 = SRY4064, 6 = PN2, 7 = p(A)L→S, 8 = PN1, 9 = DYS188792, 10 = p12f, 11 = DYS221136, 12 = DYS211105, 13 = M9, 14 = Tat, 15 = DYS257, 16 = DYS194469, 17 = DYS199, 18 = SRY10831.2⋅
Figure 2
Figure 2
MDS plot of populations based on Y-chromosome haplotype data. MDS was performed on a matrix of Chord values estimated on the basis of the frequencies of 18 Y-chromosome haplotypes in 29 populations. The three-letter population codes are defined in Subjects and Methods. Solid triangles represent Jewish populations, solid squares represent Middle Eastern populations, and open circles represent all other populations.

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