Analysis of hepatic oxidative stress status by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and imaging

Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Mar 15;28(6):846-53. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(99)00280-4.


Real-time detection of free radicals generated within the body may contribute to clarify the pathophysiological role of free radicals in disease processes. Of the techniques available for studying the generation of free radicals in biological systems, electron spin resonance (ESR) has emerged as a powerful tool for detection and identification. This article begins with a review of spin trapping detection of oxygen-centered radicals using X-band ESR spectroscopy and then describes the detection of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and ESR spectroscopy in the perfusate from isolated perfused rat livers subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This article also reviews the current status of ESR for the in vivo detection of free radicals and in vivo imaging of exogenously administered free radicals. Moreover, we show that in vivo ESR-computed tomography with 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5, 5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl may be useful for noninvasive anatomical imaging and also for imaging of hepatic oxidative stress in vivo.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cyclic N-Oxides / chemistry
  • Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Free Radicals / analysis
  • Ischemia / metabolism
  • Liver / blood supply
  • Liver / chemistry
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Phagocytosis
  • Pyrrolidines / chemistry
  • Rats
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Spin Trapping


  • Cyclic N-Oxides
  • Free Radicals
  • Pyrrolidines
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyl-N-oxyl