Mammalian homologues of Staufen, a protein involved in localizing mRNAs during oogenesis and early central nervous system development in Drosophila, have been identified recently. The mammalian staufen gene encodes a protein containing several conserved double-stranded mRNA-binding domains and is expressed in hippocampal neurons. The mammalian Staufen protein forms granules that are transported to the distal dendrite during neuronal maturation. The Staufen granules colocalize with ribonuclear particles that transport mRNA to the dendrites. These findings might provide clues to a mechanism of mRNA transport conserved in mammalian neurons and Drosophila oogenesis.