Connections of Purkinje cell axons of lobule X (nodulus vermis) with vestibulospinal neurons have been demonstrated in the rat, by anterograde labeling of axons with biotinylated dextran (BD) injected into sublobule Xa and by retrograde labeling of neurons with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) injected into cervical segments. Labeled terminals of Purkinje cell axons were numerous in the superior vestibular nucleus, the parvocellular (MVpc) and the caudal part (MVc) of the medial vestibular nucleus (MV), and group y. A limited number of labeled terminals were seen in the caudal part of the descending vestibular nucleus (DV). Occasional labeled terminals were seen in the lateral part of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LV) whereas few labeled terminals were seen in the magnocellular part of the MV (MVmc). Vestibulospinal neurons labeled from the C2 and C3 segments were seen bilaterally in the MVmc, MVpc, MVc, and DV, and ipsilaterally in the LV. CTB-labeled vestibulospinal neurons in contact with BD-labeled terminals of Purkinje cell axons were identified in the lateral part of the MVpc, near the border between the MVpc and MVmc, or close to the dorsal acoustic stria, and in the middle part of the MVc at its rostral level. The present study suggests that Purkinje cells of lobule X regulate the output of cervical-projecting vestibulospinal neurons in the MVpc and MVc.