Myringoplasty is a surgical procedure that has been routinely performed by otological surgeons for more than 40 years. Underlay and overlay are the most commonly used tympanoplastic techniques. A comparison was made of anatomic and functional results, and the year of intervention, for 97 myringoplasties, 54 using the underlay technique and 43 using the overlay technique. Selection of the overlay or underlay technique was guided by specific indications. Results were evaluated at least 1 year after surgery. No significant differences were found in anatomic success (88.8% for underlay and 97.6% for overlay). Favorable functional results (average gap of 0 to 20 dB for frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) were obtained in 88.4% of patients treated with the overlay technique and in 83% of those treated with the overlay technique, with no significant difference. We believe that the high percentage of good results was due to careful preoperative selection.