The application of molecular techniques to the characterization of caliciviruses has resulted in an extensive database of sequence information. This information has led to the identification of 4 distinct genera. The human enteric caliciviruses have been assigned to 2 of these genera. This division is reflected not only in sequence diversity but in a fundamental difference in genome organization. Complete genome sequences are now available for 5 enteric caliciviruses and demonstrate that human and animal enteric caliciviruses are phylogenetically closely related. Currently, there is no cell culture system for the human viruses; therefore, studies have relied on heterologous expression and in vitro systems. These studies have shown that in both human and animal viruses the viral nonstructural proteins are produced from a polyprotein precursor that is cleaved by a single viral protease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of genome structure and gene expression in the enteric caliciviruses.