Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions

Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb-Mar;55(11-12):843-52. doi: 10.1007/s002280050706.


Objective: 1,4-Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as nifedipine are potent vasodilators. It is now commonly agreed that the oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridine into pyridine, which is one of the main metabolic pathways, is catalysed by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoform. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of 13 kinds of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists clinically used in Japan on human CYP-isoform-dependent reactions were investigated to predict the drug interactions using microsomes from human B-lymphoblast cells expressing CYP.

Results: The specific activities for human CYP isoforms included 7-ethoxyresorfin O-deethylation (CYP1A1), phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6), 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation (CYP2B6), S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylaion (CYP2C19), bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1), and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A4). Benidipine and amlodipine competitively inhibited the CYP1A1 activity. Nifedipine, nisoldipine and aranidipine competitively inhibited the CYP1A2 activity. No 1,4-dihydropyridie calcium antagonists used in this study inhibited the CYP2A6 activity. Barnidipine and amlodipine inhibited the CYP2B6 activity. Nicardipine, benidipine, manidipine and barnidipine competitively inhibited the CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 activities. Inhibition extent of the CYP2E1 activity by nifedipine and aranidipine were weak. Nicardipine, benidipine and barnidipine inhibited the CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activities. Among the human CYP isoforms investigated, the inhibitory effects of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists were potent on human CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 as well as CYP3A4. Furthermore, the isoform selectivity of inhibition by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists was clarified.

Conclusions: In consideration of the Ki values obtained in the in vitro inhibition study and the concentration of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists in human liver, the possibility of in vivo drug interactions of nicardipine and other drugs which are mainly metabolised by CYP2C9 and/or CYP3A4 was suggested. The inhibition of human CYP isoforms by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists except nicardipine might be clinically insignificant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • B-Lymphocytes / cytology
  • B-Lymphocytes / enzymology
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / chemistry
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors*
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Dihydropyridines / chemistry
  • Dihydropyridines / pharmacology*
  • Drug Interactions
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Microsomes / enzymology


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Dihydropyridines
  • 1,4-dihydropyridine
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System