To verify the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in tumourigenesis, we examined the effect of an anti-MIF antibody on tumour growth and angiogenesis. We inoculated murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line colon 26 cells subcutaneously into the flank in BALB/c mice. After nine days, we treated tumour-bearing mice with an anti-rat MIF antibody by intraperitoneal injection on days 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21. We found significant inhibition of tumour growth by this treatment from day 15 to day 22. Next, we implanted a chamber filled with colon 26 cells, which only passes soluble factors, in the subcutaneous fascia of the flank, and treated mice with the anti-rat MIF antibody at days 1, 3 and 5. By histological examination at day 6, angiogenesis within the subcutaneous fascia in contact with the chamber was markedly suppressed. In vitro, we added an anti-human MIF antibody to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to evaluate its effect on cell growth by measurement of [3H]thymidine incorporation. We observed that the anti-MIF antibody significantly suppressed [3H]thymidine uptake by HUVEC. These results suggest the possibility that MIF is involved in tumourigenesis via promotion of angiogenesis.