Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are regulated by soluble factors such as chemotactic peptides and cytokines. PMN themselves are capable of synthesizing and releasing various cytokines, thereby taking part in the afferent or inductive limb of the immune response. We report for the first time that TGFbeta2 can be synthesized and released by PMN obtained from peripheral blood. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that preparations of PMN express mRNA for transforming growth factor (TGF)beta1 and TGFbeta2 but not for TGFbeta3. Only translation of TGFbeta2 into protein was observed applying different assays. Interestingly, TGFbeta2 in supernatants from stimulated PMN could be detected in the bioactive form.