Diagnostic criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction: proposed standards for clinical practice and research

Clin Neuropsychol. 1999 Nov;13(4):545-61. doi: 10.1076/1385-4046(199911)13:04;1-Y;FT545.


Over the past 10 years, widespread and concerted research efforts have led to increasingly sophisticated and efficient methods and instruments for detecting exaggeration or fabrication of cognitive dysfunction. Despite these psychometric advances, the process of diagnosing malingering remains difficult and largely idiosyncratic. This article presents a proposed set of diagnostic criteria that define psychometric, behavioral, and collateral data indicative of possible, probable, and definite malingering of cognitive dysfunction, for use in clinical practice and for defining populations for clinical research. Relevant literature is reviewed, and limitations and benefits of the proposed criteria are discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / psychology
  • Conversion Disorder / diagnosis
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Factitious Disorders / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Malingering / diagnosis*
  • Malingering / psychology
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Reference Standards