Chemokines are small peptides that are potent activators and chemoattractants for leukocyte subpopulations and some nonhemopoietic cells. Their actions are mediated by a family of 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, the size of which has grown considerably in recent years and now includes 18 members. Chemokine receptor expression on different cell types and their binding and response to specific chemokines are highly variable. Significant advances have been made in understanding the regulation of chemokine receptor expression and the intracellular signaling mechanisms used in bringing about cell activation. Chemokine receptors have also recently been implicated in several disease states including allergy, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, and malaria. However, most fascinating has been the observation that some of these receptors are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in gaining entry into permissive cells. This review will discuss structural and functional aspects of chemokine receptor biology and will consider the roles these receptors play in inflammation and in infectious diseases.