A study was conducted to determine whether there is a need for office-based resources to assist physicians in the prevention, assessment and/or management of patients, self and peers with substance use (excluding alcohol and tobacco) or pathological gambling disorders. The needs assessment was undertaken in three parts. Survey information was collected from 54 respondents including Executive Directors of the Canadian Medical Association's national affiliates and provincial/territorial Divisions, Deputy Ministers of Health, Registrars of provincial/territorial licensing bodies and Deans or Associate Deans of Continuing Medical Education programs in universities. Key informant interviews were conducted with 22 "experts" in the field of substance use and/or pathological gambling disorders. Focus groups were held in Vancouver, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal and Halifax with 34 physicians who are interested in and whose caseload included patients with substance use and/or gambling disorders. Results suggest that current resources for both substance use and pathological gambling disorders are inadequate for physicians because there are gaps in the types activities and resources available, existing resources have not been effectively diffused or disseminated to physicians and training is needed to complement these resources to encourage proper implementation.