Background: The cardinal characteristics of primary hypomagnesaemia-hypercalciuria-nephrocalcinosis include renal magnesium wasting, marked hypercalciuria, renal stones, nephrocalcinosis, a tendency towards chronic renal insufficiency and sometimes even ocular abnormalities or hearing impairment.
Methods: As very few patients with this syndrome have been described, we provide information on nine patients on follow-up at our institutions and review the 42 cases reported in the literature (33 females and 18 males).
Results: Urinary tract infections, polyuria-polydipsia, renal stones and tetanic convulsions were the main clinical findings at diagnosis. The clinical course was highly variable; renal failure was often reported. The concomitant occurrence of ocular involvement or hearing impairment was reported in a large subset of patients. Parental consanguinity was noted in some families.
Conclusions: The results indicate an autosomal recessive inheritance. The diagnosis of primary hypomagnesaemia-hypercalciuria-nephrocalcinosis deserves consideration in any patient with nephrocalcinosis and hypercalciuria.