A localised focus of visceral leishmaniasis is reported for the first time from Kumaon region of North India. During a period of 18 months from July 1997 to December 1998 several cases of pyrexia of unknown origin with unresponsiveness to antibiotics and anti-tubercular treatments were referred to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Five of these were diagnosed to have visceral leishmaniasis. One of these was also co-infected with HIV-1. All the five cases came from an adjoining area falling under Almora (4) and Nainital(1) districts. Of these four were males and one female. One patient died within 48 hours of hospitalization at AIIMS while rest of four responded completely to sodium stibogluconate therapy.