Purpose: To evaluate amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for ocular surface reconstruction in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS).
Design: Prospective interventional case series.
Participants: Ten consecutive patients (10 eyes) with SJS that underwent AMT as the first step in staged ocular surface reconstruction were included.
Methods: Amniotic membrane was processed under sterile conditions from a fresh placenta obtained from cesarean section in a seronegative pregnant woman and stored at -700 degrees C. Symblepharon release, excision of epibulbar fibrous tissue, and clearing of the fibrovascular membrane over the cornea was performed in all cases. Amniotic membrane covered the entire bulbar surface up to the fornices in five eyes; cornea and the perilimbal area in two eyes; cornea, the inferior bulbar surface, and the lower fornix in two eyes; and cornea and the superior bulbar surface in one eye. Obliterated fornices were deepened by use of fornix-formation sutures in all eyes. Symblepharon ring was placed postoperatively for 3 weeks to 2 months. Mean postoperative follow-up was 13.5 months (SD, +3.8 months; range, 9-30 months).
Main outcome measures: Restoration of adequate bulbar surface free of symblepharon and good fornix depth were the main outcome measures.
Results: Complete corneal reepithelization occurred in all eyes between 1 and 6 weeks. Adequate bulbar surface and fornix depth were achieved in nine eyes, all of which were free of symblepharon at the final follow-up visit. Cicatricial entropion resolved in four of five lower eyelids and one of two upper eyelids after AMT. One patient had a central corneal melt that required or necessitated a penetrating keratoplasty.
Conclusions: AMT restores adequate bulbar surface and fornix depth and prevents recurrence of symblepharon in severe cases of SJS.